An overview of Openstack Architecture and Components

OpenStack is a cloud computing platform that controls large number of  compute nodes , storage, and networking resources throughout a datacenter, all managed through a dashboard(Horizon) that gives administrators control while empowering their users to provision resources through a web interface. Openstack provides an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) solution through a set of interrelated services.


Here is the list of openstack Services , project name and description. Continue reading

What is network bonding in Linux and steps to configure network bonding ?

Network interface card (NIC) bonding (also referred to as NIC teaming) is the bonding together of two or more physical NICs so that they appear as one logical device. This allows for improvement in network performance by increasing the link speed beyond the limits of one single NIC and increasing the redundancy for higher availability. For example, you can use two 1-gigabit NICs bonded together to establish a 2-gigabit connection to a central file server.
When bonded together, two or more physical NICs can be assigned one IP address. And they will represent the same MAC address. If one of the NICs fails, the IP address remains accessible because it is bound to the local NIC rather than to a single physical NIC.

Here are the list of available options

balance-rr or 0 : Sets a round-robin policy for fault tolerance and load balancing. Transmissions are received and sent out sequentially on each bonded slave interface beginning with the first one available.

active-backup or 1: Sets an active-backup policy for fault tolerance. Transmissions are received and sent out via the first available bonded slave interface. Another bonded slave interface is only used if the active bonded slave interface fails.

balance-xor or 2: Sets an XOR(exclusive-or) policy for fault tolerance and load balancing. Using this method the interface matches up the incoming request’s MAC Address with the MAC Address for one of the slave NICs. Once the link is established, transmissions are sent out sequentially beginning with the first available interface.

broadcast or 3: Sets a broadcast policy for fault tolerance. All transmissions are sent on all slave interfaces.

802.3ad or 4: Sets an IEEE802.3ad dynamic link aggregation policy. Creates aggregation groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Transmits and receives on all slave in the active aggregator. Requires a switch that is 802.3ad compliant

balance-tlb or 5: Sets a Transmit Load Balancing (TLB) policy for fault tolerance and load balancing. The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load on each slave interface. Incoming traffic is received by the current slave. If the receiving slave fails, another slave takes over the MAC address of the failed slave.

balance-alb or 6: Sets and Active Load balancing (ALB) policy for fault tolerance and load balancing. Includes transmit and receive and load balancing for IPV4 traffic. Receive load balancing is achieved thorugh ARP negotiation

Steps to configure :
Step #1: Create a bond0 configuration file
Red Hat Linux stores network configuration in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory. First, you need to create bond0 config file:

# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0
#Append following lines to it:

Replace above IP address with your actual IP address. Save file and exit to shell prompt.

Step #2: Modify eth0 and eth1 config files:
Open both configuration using vi text editor and make sure file read as follows for eth0 interface

# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
#Modify/append directive as follows:

Open eth1 configuration file using vi text editor:

# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1Make (sure file read as follows for eth1 interface:)

Save file and exit to shell prompt.

Step # 3: Load bond driver/module
Make sure bonding module is loaded when the channel-bonding interface (bond0) is brought up. You need to modify kernel modules configuration file:

# vi /etc/modprobe.conf
#Append following two lines:
alias bond0 bonding
options bond0 mode=balance-alb miimon=100

Step # 4: Test configuration
First, load the bonding module:

# modprobe bonding
#Restart networking service in order to bring up bond0 interface:
# service network restart
Verify everything is working:
# less /proc/net/bonding/bond0Output:
Bonding Mode: load balancing (round-robin)
MII Status: up
 MII Polling Interval (ms): 0
 Up Delay (ms): 0
 Down Delay (ms): 0

 Slave Interface: eth0
 MII Status: up
 Link Failure Count: 0
 Permanent HW addr: 00:0c:29:c6:be:59
Slave Interface: eth1
 MII Status: up
 Link Failure Count: 0

L1 / L2 Linux System Admin Interview Questions – Part III

Linux Scenario Questions

Ques 1. What is the difference between name based virtual hosting and IP based virtual hosting ? Explain the scenario where name based virtual hosting seems useful ?

Ans – Virtual hosts are used to host multiple domains on a single apache instance. You can have one virtual host for each IP your server has, or the same IP but different ports, or the same IP, the same port but different host names. The latter are called “name based vhosts”.

IP-based virtual hosting, we can run more than one web site on the same server machine, but each web site has its own IP address while In Name-based virtual hosting, we host multiple websites on the same IP address. But for this to succeed, you have to put more than one DNS record for your IP address in the DNS database.

In the production shared webhosting environment, getting a dedicated IP address for every domains hosted in the server is not feasible in terms of cost. Most of the customers wont be able to afford the cost of having a dedicated IP address. Here is the place where the concepts of Name based virtual hosting find its place.

Ques 2. What is network bonding in Linux and where the important configuration files involved? What is the advantage of Network Bonding ?

Ans – Network Bonding is a Linux kernel feature that allows to aggregate multiple network interfaces into a single virtual link. This is a great way to achieve redundant links, fault tolerance or load balancing networks in production system. If one of the physical NIC is down or unplugged, it will automatically move traffic to the other NIC card. Similar way the bonding will increase the interface throughput to handle the traffic it it is configured in active-active mode.

There are 7 modes starting from 0 to 6 which decides how the bonding configuration behaves.

mode=0 (balance-rr) – Round-robin policy

It the default mode. It transmits packets in sequential order from the first available slave through the last.
This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

mode=1 (active-backup)

Active-backup policy: In this mode, only one slave in the bond is active. The other one will become active, only when the active slave fails. The bond’s MAC address is externally visible on only one port (network adapter) to avoid confusing the switch. This mode provides fault tolerance.

mode=2 (balance-xor)

Transmit the traffic based on [(source MAC address XOR’d with destination MAC address) modulo slave count]. This selects the same slave for each destination MAC address. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

mode=3 (broadcast)

Broadcast policy: transmits everything on all slave interfaces. This mode provides fault tolerance.

mode=4 (802.3ad)

Creates aggregation groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Utilizes all slaves in the active aggregator according to the 802.3ad specification.

mode=5 (balance-tlb) – Adaptive transmit load balancing

channel bonding that does not require any special switch support. The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load (computed relative to the speed) on each slave. Incoming traffic is received by the current slave. If the receiving slave fails, another slave takes over the MAC address of the failed receiving slave.

mode=6 (balance-alb) – Adaptive load balancing

It includes balance-tlb plus receive load balancing (rlb) for IPV4 traffic, and does not require any special switch support. The receive load balancing is achieved by ARP negotiation.

Important Configuration Files involved :


Ques 3. Explain briefly the procedure for re-installing Grub in Linux ?

Ans – 1) Download Ubuntu Installation / Live cd
2) Boot from Ubuntu Installation / Live cd – usb, burned cd etc.
3) During boot select “Try Ubuntu” , Don’t select install !
4) Mount your Linux root partition

sudo mount /dev/sda6 /mnt 

( Assuming /dev/sda6 is the Linux root partition)
5) Install / reinstall grub

$ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/ /dev/sda

( where /dev/sda is your primary disk)
Installation finished. No error reported.
6) Reboot your system, remove bootable CD and we should have the boot menu ready when the system starts.

Note : There would be slight difference when using with other distros.

Ques 4. Explain the fields in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow ?

Ans – The /etc/shadow file stores actual password in encrypted format with some additional properties related to user password.It mainly holds athe account aging parameters. All fields are separated by a colon (:) symbol. It contains one entry per line for each user listed in /etc/passwd file Generally, shadow file entry looks as below.


Here is the explanation of each field.

User name : Your login name

Password: Your encrypted password.

Last password change : Days since Jan 1, 1970 that password was last changed

Minimum: The minimum number of days required between password changes.

Maximum: The maximum number of days the password is valid.

Warn : The number of days before password is to expire that user is warned that his/her password must be changed

Inactive : The number of days after password expires that account is disabled

Expire : days since Jan 1, 1970 that account is disabled. It indicates an absolute date specifying when the login may no longer be used

The /etc/passwd file stores essential information, which is required during login /etc/passwd is a text file, that contains a list of user account related parameters like user ID, group ID, home directory, shell, etc.

Here is the sample entry from /etc/passwd file


Username: User’s login name.

Password: An x character indicates that encrypted password is stored in /etc/shadow file.

User ID (UID): Each user must be assigned a user ID (UID). UID 0 (zero) is reserved for root.

Group ID (GID): The primary group ID

User Info: The comment field. It allow you to add extra information about the user.

Home directory: The absolute path to the directory the user will be in when they log in.

Command/shell: The absolute path of a command or shell (/bin/bash).

Ques 5. How do you boot your system into the following modes, when you are in some trouble ?

Ans – a) Rescue mode
b) Single user mode
c) Emergency mode

Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Linux environment from an external bootable device like a CD-ROM, or USB drive instead of the system’s hard drive.Rescue mode is provided to help you with your system from repairing the file system or fixing certain issues which prevent your normal operations.

In order to get into the rescue mode, change the BIOS settings of the machine to boot from the external media. Once the system started booting using bootable disk, add the keyword rescue as a kernel parameter or else you can give the parameter “linux rescue” in the graphical boot interface.

In single-user mode, the system boots to runlevel 1, but it will have many more additional functionalities compared to switching to runlevel 1 from other levels.

The local file systems can be mounted in this mode, but the network is not activated.

Use the following steps to boot into single-user mode:

1) At the GRUB splash screen during the booting process, press any key to enter the GRUB interactive menu.
2) Select the proper version of kernel that you wish to boot and type “a” to append the line.
3) Go to the end of the line and type “single” as a separate word.
4) Press Enter to exit edit mode and type “b” to boot into single usermode now.

In emergency mode, you are booting into the most minimal environment possible. The root file system is mounted read-only and almost nothing is set up. The main advantage of emergency mode over single-user mode is that the init files are not loaded. If the init is corrupted , you can still mount file systems to recover data that could be lost during a re-installation. To boot into emergency mode, use the same method as described for single-user mode, with one exception, replace the keyword single with the keyword “emergency”.

6. In the ps results few of the processes are having process state as “D” . What does it mean ? Briefly explain different process states ?

Ans : To have a dynamic view of a process in Linux, always use the top command. This command provides a real-time view of the Linux system in terms of processes. The eighth column in the output of this command represents the current state of processes. A process state gives a broader indication of whether the process is currently running, stopped, sleeping etc.

A process in Linux can have any of the following four states…

Running – A process is said to be in a running state when either it is actually running/ executing or waiting in the scheduler’s queue to get executed (which means that it is ready to run). That is the reason that this state is sometimes also known as ‘runnable’ and represented by (R).

Waiting or Sleeping – A process is said to be in this state if it is waiting for an event to occur or waiting for some resource-specific operation to complete. So, depending upon these scenarios, a waiting state can be subcategorised into an interruptible (S) or uninterruptible (D) state respectively.

Stopped – A process is said to be in the stopped state when it receives a signal to stop. This usually happens when the process is being debugged. This state is represented by (T).

Zombie – A process is said to be in the zombie state when it has finished execution but is waiting for its parent to retrieve its exit status. This state is represented by (Z).

Apart from these four states, the process is said to be dead after it crosses over the zombie state; ie when the parent retrieves its exit status. ‘Dead’ is not exactly a state, since a dead process ceases to exist.

Ques 7. What is drop cache in Linux and how do you clear it ?

Ans – Cache in Linux memory is where the Kernel stores the information it may need later, as memory is incredible faster than disk.

It is great that the Linux Kernel takes care about that.Linux Operating system is very efficient in managing your computer memory, and will automatically free the RAM and drop the cache if some application needs memory.

Kernels 2.6.16 and newer provide a mechanism to have the kernel drop the page cache and/or inode and dentry caches on command, which can help free up a lot of memory. Now we can throw away that script that allocated a ton of memory just to get rid of the cache.

To free pagecache:

# echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

To free dentries and inodes:

# echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

To free pagecache, dentries and inodes:

#echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

This is a non-destructive operation in normal scenarios and will only free things that are completely unused. Dirty objects will continue to be in use until written out to disk and are not freeable. However it is always preferred to run “sync” first to flush useful things out to disk.

Ques 8. Password based authentication is disabled in your infrastructure. So how do you login to the servers ?

Ans – To improve the system security even further, most of the organizations turned to use keybased authentications instead of Password based authentication. We can enforce the key-based authentication by disabling the standard password authentication, which involves a public key private key pair. The public key is added in the server configuration file while private key is kept kept confidential on the client side.

Below listed is the procedure, to set up keybased authentication.

1) Generating Key Pairs

a) Generate an RSA key pair by typing the following at a shell prompt:

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/steve/.ssh/id_rsa):

b) Press Enter to confirm the default location (that is, ~/.ssh/id_rsa) for the newly created key.

c) Enter a passphrase, and confirm it by entering it again when prompted to do so.

d) Copy the content of ~/.ssh/ into the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the machine to which you want to connect,
appending it to its end if the file already exists.

e) Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file using the following command:

$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

2) Now on your client side, open the remote connection agent like putty and browse your public key and try SSH to the server, you should be able to login without a password now.

# ssh
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is e3:c3:89:37:4b:94:37:d7:0c:d5:6f:9a:38:62:ce:1b.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Last login: Tue July 13 12:40:34 2014 from

3) Public key authentication can prevent brute force SSH attacks, but only if all password-based authentication methods are disabled. Once public key authentication has been confirmed to be working, disable regular password authentication by editing /etc/ssh/sshd_config and set the following option to “no”.

PasswordAuthentication no

Ques 9. Explain the different Scenarios involved in TCP 3 way handshake ?

Ans – The TCP three way handshake is the process for establishing a TCP connection.We can explain 3 way handshake with a simple scenario where we assume a client computer is contacting a server to send it some information.

a) The client sends a packet with the SYN bit set and a sequence number of N.
b) The server sends a packet with an ACK number of N+1, the SYN bit set and a sequence number of X.
c) The client sends a packet with an ACK number of X+1 and the connection is established.
d) The client sends the data.

The first three steps in the above process is called the three way handshake.

Ques 10. As the disk space utilization was so high in the server, the Administrator has removed few files from the server but still the disk utilization is showing as high. What would be the reason ?

Ans – In Linux even if we remove a file from the mounted file system, that will still be in use by some application and for this application it remains available. Its because file descriptor in /proc/ filesystem is held open..So if there are such open descriptors to files already removed, space occupied by them considered as used. You find this difference by checking them using the “df” and “du” commands. While df is to show the file system usage, du is to report the file space usage. du works from files while df works at filesystem level, reporting what the kernel says it has available.

You can find all unlinked but held open files with:

# lsof | grep '(deleted)'

This will list the filename which is open witht he pid in which it is running. We can kill those Pids and which will stop these process and will recover the disk space responsible for this file.

Ques 11. What is rDNS and explain its benefits in the Linux Domain Name Systems ?

Ans – A typical DNS lookup is used to determine which IP address is associated with a hostname, and this is called Forward DNS lookup. A reverse DNS lookup is used for the opposite, to determine which hostname is associated with an IP address. Sometimes reverse DNS lookups are required for diagnostic purposes. Today, reverse DNS lookups are used mainly for security purposes to trace a hacker or spammer. Many modern mailing systems use reverse mapping to provide simple authentication using dual lookup: hostname-to-address and address-to-hostname. The rDNS ( reverse DNS ) is implemented using a specialized zone record for reverse lookups called PTR record. PTR records always resolve to names, never IP addresses.

Ques 12. What is sosreport, how do you generate it while working with your Redhat Support Team in production ?

Ans : Sosreport is a command-line utility in Redhat based linux destros (RHEL / CentOS) which collects system configuration and diagnostic information of your linux box like running kernel version, loaded modules, and system and service configuration files. This command also runs external programs to collect further information, and stores this output in the resulting archive. Sosreport is required when you have open a case with redhat for technical support. Redhat support Engineers will require sosreport of your server for troubleshooting purpose. To run sosreport, sos package should be installed. Sos package is part of default installation in most of linux. If for any reason this package is no installed , then use below yum command to install it manually :

# yum install sos

Generate the report

Open the terminal type sosreport command :

# sosreport

This command will normally complete within a few minutes. Depending on local configuration and the options specified in some cases the command may take longer to finish. Once completed, sosreport will generate a compressed a file under /tmp folder. The file should be provided to Redhat support representative as an attachment to open a support case.

Ques 13. What is swappiness in Linux Memory Management and how do we configure that ?

Ans – The swappiness parameter controls the tendency of the kernel to move processes out of physical memory and onto the swap disk. Because disks are much slower than RAM, this can lead to slower response times for system and applications if processes are too aggressively moved out of memory.

swappiness can have a value of between 0 and 100

swappiness=0 tells the kernel to avoid swapping processes out of physical memory for as long as possible

swappiness=100 tells the kernel to aggressively swap processes out of physical memory and move them to swap cache

The default setting in Redhat/Ubuntu based Linux distros is swappiness=60. Reducing the default value of swappiness will probably improve overall performance for a typical Ubuntu desktop installation.

~$ cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

If we have enough RAM, we can turn that down to 10 or 15. The swap file will then only be used when the RAM usage is around 80 or 90 percent.

To change the system swappiness value, open /etc/sysctl.conf as root. Then, change or add this line to the file:

vm.swappiness = 10

Reboot for the change to take effect

You can also change the value while your system is still running

#sysctl vm.swappiness=10

We can also clear swap by running swapoff -a and then swapon -a as root instead of rebooting to achieve the same effect.

Ques 14. What is git ?

Ans : Git is a very popular and efficient open source Version Control System. It tracks content such as files and directories. It stores the file content in BLOBs – binary large objects. The folders are represented as trees. Each tree contains other trees (subfolders) and BLOBs along with a simple text file which consists of the mode, type, name and Secure Hash Algorithm of each blob and subtree entry. During repository transfers, even if there are several files with the same content and different names, the GIT software will transfer the BLOB once and then expand it to the different files.

Ques 15. What is inode ? Briefly explain the structure ?

Ans : Inode is a data structure that keeps track of all the information about a file. When we keep our information in a file and the OS stores the information about a file in an inode. Information about files is sometimes called metadata. We can say that an inode is metadata of the data. In a file system, inodes consist roughly of 1% of the total disk space, whether it is a whole storage unit or a partition on a storage unit. The inode space is used to ?track? the files stored on the hard disk. The inode entries store metadata about each file, directory or object, but only points to these structures rather than storing the data. Each entry is 128 bytes in size. The metadata contained about each structure can include the following:

Inode number
Access Control List (ACL)
Extended attribute
Direct/indirect disk blocks
Number of blocks
File access, change and modification time
File deletion time
File generation number
File size
File type
Number of links
Status flags

Inode structure of a directory consists of a name to inode mapping of files and directories in that directory.In a directory, You can find the inode number corresponding to the files using the command “ls -i”

#ls -i
786727 -rw------- 1 root root 4226530 May 29 13:17 sudo.log
786437 -rw-------. 1 root root 32640 Jun 23 20:11 tallylog
786440 -rw-rw-r--. 1 root utmp 276096 Jul 20 06:45 wtmp
786741 -rw------- 1 root root 9653 Jul 17 09:38 yum.log

Similar way, the number of inodes allocated, used and free in a Filesystem can be listed using “df -i” command

# df -i /root
Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on
524288 80200 444088 16% 

L1 / L2 Linux System Admin Interview Questions – Part II

Ques 1. What is the difference between umask and ulimit ?

umask stands for ‘User file creation mask’, which determines the settings of a mask that controls which file permissions are set for files and directories when they are created. While ulimit is a linux built in command which provides control over the resources available to the shell and/or to processes started by it.

You can limit user to specific range by editing /etc/security/limits.conf at the same time system wide settings can be updated in /etc/sysctl.conf

Ques 2. What are the run levels in linux and how to change them ?

A run level is a state of init and the whole system that defines what system services are operating and they are identified by numbers.There are 7 different run levels present (run level 0-6) in Linux system for different purpose. The descriptions are given below.

0: Halt System (To shutdown the system)
1: Single user mode
2: Basic multi user mode without NFS
3: Full multi user mode (text based)
4: unused
5: Multi user mode with Graphical User Interface
6: Reboot System

To change the run level, edit the file “/etc/inittab” and change initdefault entry ( id:5:initdefault:). If we want to change the run level on the fly, it can be done using ‘init’ command.

For example, when we type ‘init 3′ in the commandline , this will move the system from current runlevel to runlevl 3. Current level can be listed by typing the command ‘who -r’

Ques 3. What is the functionality of a Puppet Server ?

Puppet is an open-source and enterprise application for configuration management toll in UNIX like operating system. Puppet is an IT automation software used to push configuration to its clients (puppet agents) using code. Puppet code can do a variety of tasks from installing new software, to check file permissions, or updating user accounts and lots of other tasks.

Ques 4. What is SeLinux?

SELinux is an acronym for Security-enhanced Linux. It is an access control implementation and security feature for the Linux kernel. It is designed to protect the server against misconfigurations and/or compromised daemons. It put limits and instructs server daemons or programs what files they can access and what actions they can take by defining a security policy.

Ques 5. What is crontab and explain the fields in a crontab ?

The cron is a deamon that executes commands at specific dates and times in linux. You can use this to schedule activities, either as one-time events or as recurring tasks. Crontab is the program used to install, deinstall or list the tables used to drive the cron daemon in a server. Each user can have their own crontab, and though these are files in /var/spool/cron/crontabs, they are not intended to be edited directly. Here are few of the command line options for crontab.

crontab -e Edit your crontab file.
crontab -l Show your crontab file.
crontab -r Remove your crontab file.

Traditional cron format consists of six fields separated by white spaces:

The format is explained in detail below.

* * * * * *
| | | | | |
| | | | | +– Year (range: 1900-3000)
| | | | +—- Day of the Week (range: 1-7, 1 standing for Monday)
| | | +—— Month of the Year (range: 1-12)
| | +——– Day of the Month (range: 1-31)
| +———- Hour (range: 0-23)
+———— Minute (range: 0-59)

Ques 6. What are inodes in Linux ? How to find the inode associated with a file ?

An inode is a data structure on a filesystem on Linux and other Unix-like operating systems that stores all the information about a file except its name and its actual data. When a file is created, it is assigned both a name and an inode number, which is an integer that is unique within the filesystem. Both the file names and their corresponding inode numbers are stored as entries in the directory that appears to the user to contain the files. The concept of inodes is particularly important to the recovery of damaged filesystems. When parts of the inode are lost, they appear in the lost+found directory within the partition in which they once existed.

The following will show the name of each object in the current directory together with its inode number:

# ls -i

The avialble number inodes in a filesystem can be found using the below command :

# df -i

The other way we can get the inode details of a file by using the stat commmand.

Usage : # stat

Example :

-sh-4.1$ stat note.txt
File: `note.txt'
Size: 4 Blocks: 8 IO Block: 4096 regular file
Device: fd05h/64773d Inode: 8655235 Links: 1
Access: (0644/-rw-r--r--) Uid: (69548/nixuser) Gid: (25000/ UNKNOWN)
Access: 2014-06-29 15:27:56.299214865 +0000
Modify: 2014-06-29 15:28:28.027093254 +0000
Change: 2014-06-29 15:28:28.027093254 +0000

Apart from the above basic questions, be prepared for answers for the below questions

1. How to set linux file/directory permissions ?

2. How to set ownership for files/directories ?

3. How to create user/group and how to modify it ?

4. How to find kernel / OS version and its supported bit (32/64) version ?

5. How to set / find interface ip address ?

6. How to find linux mount points and disk usage ?

7. What command to find memory and swap usage ?

8. Have a look on ps, top, grep, find, awk and dmesg commands ?

L1 / L2 Linux System Admin Interview Questions – Part I

Ques 1 : – How to increase disk read performance from single command in Linux ?

Ans : – In Linux like Operating System the Read performance of a Disk can be improved by increasing a parameter called “Read+Ahead” using ‘blockdev’ command. By default the Linux OS will read 128 KB of data in advance so that it is already in Memory cache before the program needs it. This value can be increased so as to get better Read Performance.

Example :

# blockdev –setra 16384 /dev/sda

Ques 2 : – What is the use of tmfs File System ?

Ans : – Tmpfs is a file system which keeps all files in virtual memory. Everything in tmpfs is temporary in the sense that no files will be created on your hard drive. If you unmount a tmpfs instance, everything stored therein is lost.

tmpfs puts everything into the kernel internal caches and grows and shrinks to accommodate the files it contains and is able to swap unneeded pages out to swap space. It has maximum size limits which can be adjusted on the fly via ‘mount -o remount …’

Ques 3 : – What is anacron and its usage ?

Ans : – Anacron is a service that runs after every system reboot, checking for any cron and at scheduled jobs that were to run while the system was down and hence, have not yet run. It scans the /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron file for three factors to determine whether to run these missed jobs. The three factors are the presence of the /var/spool/anacron/cron.daily file, the elapsed time of 24 hours since anacron last ran, and the presence of the AC power to the system. If all of the three factors are affirmative, anacron goes ahead and automatically executes the scripts located in the /etc/cron.daily, /etc/cron.weekly, and /etc/cron.monthly directories, based on the settings and conditions defined in anacron’s main configuration file /etc/anacrontab

Ques 4 : – What is difference between Soft Link & Hard Link ?

Ans : – A soft link (symbolic link or a symlink) makes it possible to associate one file with another. It is similar to a shortcut in MS Windows where the actual file is resident somewhere in the directory structure but you may have multiple shortcuts or pointers with different names pointing to it. Each soft link has a unique inode number.A soft link can cross file system boundaries and can be used to link directories.

A hard link associates two or more files with a single inode number. This allows the files to have identical permissions, ownership, time stamp, and file contents. Changes made to any of the files are reflected on the other linked files. All files actually contain identical data.A hard link cannot cross file system boundaries and cannot be used to link directories.

Ques 5 : – What is the difference between hardware RAID and Software RAID?

Ans : – The hardware-based RAID is independent from the host. A Hardware RAID device connects to the SCSI controller and presents the RAID arrays as a single SCSI drive. An external RAID system moves all RAID handling “intelligence” into a controller located in the external disk subsystem. The whole subsystem is connected to the host via a normal SCSI controller and appears to the host as a single disk.

Software RAID is implemented under OS Kernel level. The Linux kernel contains an MD driver that allows the RAID solution to be completely hardware independent. The performance of a software-based array depends on the server CPU performance and load.

Ques 6 : – Explain the command “rpm -qf “?

Ans : – it queries the RPM database for which package owns . When specifying a file, specify the absolute path of the file.

Ques 7. What is initrd image and what is its function in the linux booting process ?

Ans : The initial RAM disk (initrd) is an initial root file system that is mounted prior to when the real root file system is available.The initrd is bound to the kernel and loaded as part of the kernel boot procedure. The kernel then mounts this initrd as part of the two-stage boot process to load the modules to make the real file systems available and get at the real root file system. Thus initrd image plays a vital role in linux booting process.

Ques 8. Explain the terms suid, sgid and sticky bit ?

Ans : In addition to the basic file permissions in Linux, there are few special permissions that are available for executable files and directories.

SUID : If setuid bit is set, when the file is executed by a user, the process will have the same rights as the owner of the file being executed.

SGID : Same as above, but inherits group previleges of the file on execution, not user previleges. Similar way when you create a file within directory,it will inherit the group ownership of the directories.

Sticky bit : Sticky bit was used on executables in linux so that they would remain in the memory more time after the initial execution, hoping they would be needed in the near future. But mainly it is on folders, to imply that a file or folder created inside a stickybit enabled folder could only be deleted by the owner. A very good implementation of sticky bit is /tmp ,where every user has write permission but only users who own a file can delete them.

Ques 9. List out few of the differences between Softlink and Hardlink ?

Ans : a) Hardlink cannot be created for directories. Hard link can only be created for a file.

b) Symbolic links or symlinks can link to a directory.

c) Removing the original file that your hard link points to does not remove the hardlink itself; the hardlink still provides the content of the underlying file.

d) If you remove the hard link or the symlink itself, the original file will stay intact.

e) Removing the original file does not remove the attached symbolic link or symlink, but without the original file, the symlink is useless

Ques 10. How do you sent a mail attachment via bash console ?

“mutt” is an opensource tool for sending emails with attachments from the linux bash command line. We can install “mutt” from the binary rpm or via packagemanager.

For Ubuntu / Debian based destros.

# apt-get install mutt

For Redhat / Fedor based destros,

# yum install mutt

Usage :

# mutt -s "Subject of Mail" -a "path of attachment file" "email address of recipient" < "message text containing body of the message"

Eg :

 mutt -s "Backup Data" -a /home/backup.tar.gz < /tmp/message.txt

System Admin Q & A on process, cron, lsof

Ques 1 : – What command would you use to alter the priority of a running process?

Ans : – The renice command.

Ques 2 : – When would the cron daemon execute a job that is submitted as */10 * 2-8 */6 1

Ans : – The cron daemon will run the script every tenth minute of the hour on the 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , 6 th , 7 th ,and 8 th of every 6 th month provided the day falls on a Monday.

Ques 3 : – What is the other command besides the ps command to view processes running on the system?

Ans : -The top command.

Ques 4 : – What is the command to list the PID of a specific process?

Ans : -The pidof command can be used to list the PID of a specific process.

Ques 5 : – What are the background processes normally referred to in Linux?

Ans : – The background processes are referred to as daemons

Ques 6 : – Which command is used to run a process immune to hangup signals?

Ans : – The nohup command with an ampersand sign at the end of the command line.

Ques 7 : – What is the default nice value?

Ans : – The default nice value is zero.

Ques 8 : – What are the four ls* commands to view pci, usb, cpu, and hal information?

Ans : – The lspci, lsusb, lscpu, and lshal commands.

Ques 9 : – The parent process gets the nice value of its child process. True or False?

Ans : – True

Ques 10 : – Every process running on the system has a unique identication number called UID. True or False?

Ans : – False. It is called the PID.

Ques 11 : – Why would you use the renice command?

Ans : – The renice command can be used to change the niceness of a running process.

Ques 12 : – Which user does not have to be explicitly defined in either *.allow or *.deny file to be able to run the at and cron jobs?

Ans : – The root user.

Ques 13 : – What command would you use to list open files?

Ans : – The lsof command.

Ques 14 : – What does the run-parts command do?

Ans : – The run-parts command is used to run scripts listed in the specified directory.

Ques 15 : – When would the at command execute a job that is submitted as at 01:00 12/12/15

Ans : – The at command will run it at 1am on December 12, 2015

Ques 16 : – What would the nice command display without any options or arguments?

Ans : – The nice command displays the default nice value when executed without any options.

System Admin Q & A – XXIII

Ques 1: – What are different type of variables in Linux ?

Ans: – There are two types of variables :

System Defined Variable: These are the variables which are created and maintained by Operating System(Linux) itself. Generally these variables are defined in CAPITAL LETTERS. We can see these variables by using the command “set”

User Defined Variable : These variables are defined by users. A shell script allows us to set and use our own variables within the script. Setting variables allows you to temporarily store data and use it throughout the script, making the shell script more like a real computer program. Some Examples are listed below :

var4=“still more testing”

The Linux shell automatically determines the data type used for the variable value.

Ques 2: – What does chroot SFTP means ?

Ans: – SFTP stands for SSH File Transfer protocol or Secure File Transfer Protocol. SFTP provides file access, file transfer, and file management functionalities over any reliable data stream. When we configure SFTP in chroot environment , then only allowed users will be limited to their home directory , or we can say allowed users will be in jail like environment where they can’t even change their directory.

Ques 3: – How to check syntax of named.conf is correct or not ?

Ans: – named-checkconf is the command, which checks the syntax of named.conf file.

# named-checkconf /etc/named.conf

If bind is running in chroot environment use below command

# named-checkconf -t /var/named/chroot /etc/named.conf

Ques 4: – What are the different types of DNS records or Resource records ?

Ans: – Below are the list of resource records or DNS records :

SOA – start of authority, for a given zone
NS – name server
A – name-to-address mapping
PTR – address-to-name mapping
CNAME – canonical name (for aliases)
MX – mail exchanger (host to receive mail for this name)
TXT – textual info
RP – contact person for this zone
WKS – well known services
HINFO – host information

Ques 5: – How To limit the data transfer rate, number of clients & connections per IP for local users in VSFTPD ?

Ans: – Edit the ftp server’s config file (/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf) and set the below directives :

local_max_rate=1000000 # Maximum data transfer rate in bytes per second
max_clients=50 # Maximum number of clients that may be connected
max_per_ip=2 # Maximum connections per IP

Ques 6: – How to change the default directory for ftp / Anonymous user in vsftpd ?

Ans: -Edit the file ‘/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf’ and change the below directive :

After making above change either restart or reload vsftpd service

Ques 7: – What are the important daemons in postfix ?

Ans: – Below are the lists of impportant daemons in postfix mail server :

master :The master daemon is the brain of the Postfix mail system. It spawns all other daemons.
smtpd: The smtpd daemon (server) handles incoming connections.
smtp :The smtp client handles outgoing connections.
qmgr :The qmgr-Daemon is the heart of the Postfix mail system. It processes and controls all messages in the mail queues.
local : The local program is Postfix’ own local delivery agent. It stores messages in mailboxes.

Ques 8: – What is the use of Domain Keys(DKIM) in mail servers ?

Ans: – DomainKeys is an e-mail authentication system designed to verify the DNS domain of an e-mail sender and the message integrity. The DomainKeys specification has adopted aspects of Identified Internet Mail to create an enhanced protocol called DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM).

Ques 9: – What is use of sshpass command in linux ?

Ans: – sshpass is a command which allows us to automatically supply password to the command prompt so that automated scripts can be run as desired by users. sshpass supplies password to ssh prompt using a dedicated tty , fooling ssh to believe that a interactive user is supplying password.

Ques 10: – What is the use of blowfish options in scp command ?

Ans: -Using blowfish options in scp command , we can increase the speed, by default scp uses the Triple-DES cipher to encrypt the data being copied.
Example : scp -c blowfish /home/itstuff.txt root@:/opt/

Ques 11: – What is Initrd ?

Ans: – Initrd stands for initial ram disk , which contains the temporary root filesystem and neccessary modules which helps in mounting the real root filesystem in read mode only.

Ques 12: – What is an Open mail relay ?

Ans: – An open mail relay is an SMTP server configured in such a way that it allows anyone on the Internet to send e-mail through it, not just mail destined to or originating from known users.This used to be the default configuration in many mail servers; indeed, it was the way the Internet was initially set up, but open mail relays have become unpopular because of their exploitation by spammers and worms.

System Admin Q & A – XXII

Ques 1: – What is PXE Server in Linux?

Ans: – The Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) is a method of network booting blade and cluster systems. It is the core technology for Intel’s Wired for Management (WfM) initiative and is supported by most commercial network interfaces.
A PXE install server allows your client computers to boot and install a Linux distribution over the network, without the need of burning Linux iso images onto a CD/DVD, boot floppy images, etc.

Ques 2: – For how much time sudo command stores sudoer’s password & how can we change it ?

Ans: –
By default, sudo stores the sudoer’s password for a five minute timeout period. Any subsequent uses of the command during this period will not prompt the user for a password. This could be exploited by an attacker if the user leaves his workstation unattended and unlocked while still being logged in. This behavior can be changed by adding the following line to the /etc/sudoers file:

Defaults timestamp_timeout=
where is the desired timeout length in minutes. Setting the to 0 causes sudo to require a password every time

Ques 3: – What is sosreport & why it is required ?

Ans: – sosreport is a command in linux (RHEL / CentOS) which collects system configuration and diagnostic information of your linux box like running kernel version, loaded modules, and system and service configuration files. This command also runs external programs to collect further information, and stores this output in the resulting archive.

Sosreport is required when you have open a case with redhat for technical support. Redhat support Engineers will require sosreport of your server for troubleshooting purpose.

Ques 4: – How to check nfs server IO stats & performance in Linux ?

Using command ‘nfsiostat‘ we can list iostat of nfs mount points. Use the below command :

#  nfsiostat interval count mount_point

: specifies the amount of time in seconds between each report. The first report contains statistics for the time since each file system was mounted. Each subsequent report contains statistics collected during the interval since the previ-ous report.

: If the parameter is specified, the value of determines the number of reports generated at seconds apart. if the interval parameter is specified without the parameter, the command generates reports continuously.

: If one or more names are specified, statistics for only these mount points will be displayed. Otherwise, all NFS mount points on the client are listed.

Ques 5: – What is portmap?

Ans: – The portmapper keeps a list of what services are running on what ports. This list is used by a connecting machine to see what ports it wants to talk to access certain services.

Ques 6: – What are different versions of NFS Server ?

Ans: – Currently, there are three versions of NFS. NFS version 2 (NFSv2) is older and widely supported. NFS version 3 (NFSv3) supports safe asynchronous writes and is more robust at error handling than NFSv2; it also supports 64-bit file sizes and offsets, allowing clients to access more than 2Gb of file data.

NFS version 4 (NFSv4) works through firewalls and on the Internet, no longer requires an rpcbind service, supports ACLs, and utilizes stateful operations. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.X & Centos 6.X supports NFSv2, NFSv3, and NFSv4 clients. When mounting a file system via NFS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses NFSv4 by default, if the server supports it.

Ques 7: – What is difference between root_squash & no_root_squash ?

Ans: – root_squash: By default, any file request made by user root on the client machine is treated as if it is made by user nobody on the server.

(Exactly which UID the request is mapped to depends on the UID of user “nobody” on the server, not the client.)

no_root_squash : if this option is used , then root on the client machine will have the same level of access to the files on the system as root on the server. This can have serious security implications, although it may be necessary if you want to perform any administrative work on the client machine that involves the exported directories. You should not specify this option without a good reason.

Ques 8: – What is chroot environment in ftp server ?

Ans: – chroot environment prevents the user from leaving its home directory means jail like environment where users are limited to their home directory only. It is the addon security of ftp server.

Ques 9: – What are the defaults ports used for linux ftp server ?

Ans: – Port 20 – This is the data transfer port. All the all subsequent data transfers between the client and server are done using this port.

Port 21 – On this port control connection is established. All commands we send and the ftp server’s responses to those commands will go over the control connection, but any data sent back (such as “ls” directory lists or actual file data in either direction) will go over the data connection.

Ques 10: – What is the difference between Hard mount & Soft mount in nfs ?

Ans: – Difference between soft mount and hard mount is listed below :

Soft Mount : Consider we have mounted a NFS share using ‘soft mount’ . When a program or application requests a file from the NFS filesystem, NFS client daemons will try to retrieve the data from the NFS server. But, if it doesn’t get any response from the NFS server (due to any crash or failure of NFS server), the NFS client will report an error to the process on the client machine requesting the file access. The advantage of this mechanism is “fast responsiveness” as it doesn’t wait for the NFS server to respond. But, the main disadvantage of this method is data corruption or loss of data. So, this is not a recommended option to use.

Hard Mount : Suppose we have mounted the NFS share using hard mount, it will repeatedly retry to contact the server. Once the server is back online the program will continue to execute undisturbed from the state where it was during server crash. We can use the mount option “intr” which allows NFS requests to be interrupted if the server goes down or cannot be reached. Hence the recommended settings are hard and intr options.

Ques 11: – How to enable only limited/allowed users are able to login via ftp ?

Ans: – This can be done by editing the file ‘/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf’ and add the below directives :

The file specified by userlist_file will now contain users that are able to login.

System Admin Q & A – XXI

Ques 1: – What is the difference between hard link and soft link ?

Ans: – When you delete a file it removes one link to the underlying inode. The inode is only deleted (or deletable/over-writable) when all links to the inode have been deleted.

A symbolic link is a link to another name in the file system.
Once a hard link has been made the link is to the inode. deleting renaming or moving the original file will not affect the hard link as it links to the underlying inode. Any changes to the data on the inode is reflected in all files that refer to that inode.

Note: Hard links are only valid within the same File System. Symbolic links can span file systems as they are simply the name of another file.

Ques 2: – How Set the password expiry for a user ?

Ans: – In Linux, chage command is used to configure the password expiry information for a user. The expiry information for all the accounts is stored in /etc/shadow file. The chage command can only be used on Linux system which uses /etc/shadow file to store the user password information. chage command requires root privilege except for ‘-l’ option.

Ques 3: – What is relay host in Mail Server ?

Ans: -If the machine needs to pass mail to another mail server to get out to the Internet, the hostname of the mail server should be defined as the Relay Host. If a Relay Host is defined, mail to all domains not defined as a mail route or virtual domain will be forwarded to the machine defined as Relay Host. Generally, this option is used to relay outgoing mail.

Ques 4: – What is iscsi Server in Linux ?

Ans: – ISCSI stands for Internet scsi , is a network protocol which allows SCSI-3 commands to be encapsulated in TCP streams and transmitted over IP. Generally , it is used in conjuction with Gigabit Ethernet or 10-Gigabit Ethernet technology as way to build-wide area Storage Area Network (SAN) using inexpensive hardware in place of more expensive Fibre Channel equipment.

Ques 5: – Define the working of ISCSI Server ?

Ans: – : A Remote disk server is Configured as an iSCSI target. The target will serve out one or more disks , each disk or logical unit , will have its own logical unit number(LUN). A typical target normally listens for connections on the default iSCSI port , tcp/3260 , although tcp/860 is sometimes used as an alternative in the reserved port range by some implementations. A Client that wants to access a disk runs an iSCSI initiator.

The initiator is configured to find and log in to the iSCSI target and access one or more of its LUNs.The disks accessed will then show up on the client as a normal scsi disks in the order in which they connect (/dev/sd*). The disks then can be used as if they were locally-attached disks : they can be partitioned, registered as LVM physical volumes , formatted with ext3/ext4 filesystems and so on.

Ques 6: – What is domain delegation in DNS (bind) ?

Ans: – Domain delegation means if you have a sub-domain and want to forward all dns queries another name server. In this case, let’s say is the sub-domain. The idea is that you want to create DNS records for the sub-domain (say and manage those DNS records through a different DNS name server.

Delegating the subdomain to another NS – being

geo IN NS

del IN A

Ques 7: – What is the use of Multicast address in RedHat cluster ?

Ans : – Red Hat Cluster nodes communicate among each other using multicast addresses.

Therefore, each network switch and associated networking equipment in a Red Hat Cluster must be configured to enable multicast addresses and support IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). Ensure that each network switch and associated networking equipment in a Red Hat Cluster are capable of supporting multicast addresses and IGMP; if they are, ensure that multicast addressing and IGMP are enabled. Without multicast and IGMP, not all nodes can participate in a cluster, causing the cluster to fail.

Ques 8: – What is CNAME record in DNS ?

Ans: – CNAME stands for Canonical Name. CNAME is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) that specifies that the domain name is an alias of another, canonical domain name.

Ques 9: – What is Satellite Network Server in Linux ?

Ans: – Redhat offers Red Hat Network (RHN) is a family of systems management services operated by Red Hat that makes updates, patches, and bug fixes of packages included within Red Hat Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux available to subscribers. Other available features include the deployment of custom content to, and the provisioning, configuration, reporting, monitoring of client systems.

Ques 10: – What is the use of pvmove command in Linux ?

Ans: – pvmove allows us to move the allocated physical extents (PEs) on SourcePhysicalVolume to one or more other physical volumes (PVs).

You can optionally select a subset of the allocated physical extents on SourcePhysicalVolume by giving colon-separated lists and/or ranges of physical extents, or by specifying the source LogicalVolume optionally with colon-separated lists and/or ranges of logical extents.

In this case only these extents are moved to free (or specified) extents on DestinationPhysicalVolume(s). If no DestinationPhysicalVolume is specifed, the normal allocation rules for the volume group are used.

Ques 11: – What is LVM Snapshots ?

Ans: – A snapshot volume is a special type of volume that presents all the data that was in the volume at the time the snapshot was created. we can backup that volume without having to worry about data being changed while the backup is going on, and we don’t have to take the database volume offline while the backup is taking place.

System Admin Q & A – XX

Ques 1: – How to migrate LVM partition from One Server To Another Server ?

Ans: – Follow the below mentioned steps to migrate LVM partition from one server to another

Umount the LVM partition
Make the voulme Group inactive using vgchange command

# vgchange -an Voulme-Group-Name

Export the Volume Group using vgexport command

#vgexport Voulme-Group-Name

Now Assign the same storage or volume to new server and scan the physical volume using pvscan command.
Now Import the voulme Group Activate the Voulme Group

# vgimport Voulme-Group-Name

using below command

# vgchange -ay Voulme-Group-Name

Now mount the LVM partition

# mount /dev/mapper/Volume-Group-LVM-Name   /Mount-Point

Ques 2: – What are the static routes & how to add static routes in Linux ?

Ans: – Static routes are for traffic that must not, or should not, go through the default gateway. Static routes are for traffic that must not, or should not, go through the default gateway Static routes will be added usually through “route add” & “ip route” command. The drawback of ‘route’ command is that, when Linux reboots it will forget static routes. But to make it persistent across reboots, you have to add it to /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0

Ques 3: -What is multipathing and Why it is required ?

Ans: – Multipathing is a feature of Red Hat Linux ,it allows you to configure multiple I/O paths from your server to your storage device (SAN, etc). These are physical paths that include HBA, cables and switches. Multipathing aggregates the I/O paths, creating a new device that consists of the aggregated paths. Multipathing is required to remove the single point of failure and provide fault tolerance.

Ques 4: – How To add swap space to the Linux Servers on the Fly ?

Ans: – There are two ways to add swap space to linux server , first create a swap partition and enable swap on the partition and add the swap space using swapon command. Second method if you don’t have enough space on the drive to create partition , so in this case , just create a swap file using dd command , enable swap space on the file.

Ques 5: -How to create a initrd file in redhat linux ?

Ans: – : Initrd is the initial ram disk , it contains the temopary root file system ,w hich helps the kernel to mount real root file system , using mkinitrd command we can create initrd file.

# mkinitrd -o /boot/initrd.$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)

Ques 6: -What is load average in Linux Boxes ?

Ans: – : Load Average is defined as the number of process waiting in the run queue, plus the numbers of process currently executing over 1 ,5 & 15 minutes period of interval. Using the ‘top’ and uptime command we can find the load average of linux servers.

Ques 7: – How To enable timestamps in output of history command ?

Ans: – When we run the “history” command it only gives you command along with the line numbers. Sometimes it’s useful to have a time stamp attached to each command to build a clearer picture. To enable the timestamps in history command we have to set “HISTTIMEFORMAT “ environment variable.


Ques 8: – How do you find how many cpu are in your system and there details?

Ans: – Method:1 By looking into file /etc/cpuinfo for example you can use below command:

# cat  /proc/cpuinfo

Method:2 We can also use the command ‘lscpu’ as shown below :

h4@prod11:~$  lscpu
Architecture:          x86_64
CPU  op-mode(s):        32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:            Little Endian
CPU(s):                4
On-line CPU(s)  list:   0-3
Thread(s) per  core:    2
Core(s) per  socket:    2
Socket(s):             1
NUMA node(s):          1
Vendor ID:             GenuineIntel
CPU family:            6
Model:                 37
Stepping:              5
CPU MHz:               933.000
BogoMIPS:              4787.70
Virtualization:        VT-x
L1d cache:             32K
L1i cache:             32K
L2 cache:              256K
L3 cache:              3072K
NUMA  node0 CPU(s):     0-3

Ques 9: – How do you know if the remote host is alive or not ?

Ans: – : We can can use the commands ‘ping & telnet’ to find whether remote host is alive or not. If you are getting the reply of ping command then it means remote host is up and running. Now if you want to know wthether a particular service is running or not then use the telnet command as shown in the above question.

Ques 10: – What is the difference between Swapping and Paging ?

Ans: – Swapping: Whole process is moved from the swap device to the main memory for execution. Process size must be less than or equal to the available main memory. It is easier to implementation and overhead to the system. Swapping systems does not handle the memory more flexibly as compared to the paging systems.

Paging: Only the required memory pages are moved to main memory from the swap device for execution. Process size does not matter. Gives the concept of the virtual memory. It provides greater flexibility in mapping the virtual address space into the physical memory of the machine. Allows more number of processes to fit in the main memory simultaneously. Allows the greater process size than the available physical memory. Demand paging systems handle the memory more flexibly.

Ques 11: – What’s the difference between local, global and universal groups in windows server?

Ans: – Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.

System Admin Q & A – XIX

Ques 1: – What is rbash & where it is used ?

Ans: – rbash is a restricted bash ,If bash is started with the name rbash, or the -r option is supplied at invocation, the shell becomes restricted. A restricted shell is used to set up an
environment more controlled than the standard shell. It behaves identically to bash with the exception that the following are disallowed or not performed:

changing directories with cd
setting or unsetting the values of SHELL, PATH, ENV, or BASH_ENV
specifying command names containing /
specifying a file name containing a / as an argument to the . builtin command
specifying a filename containing a slash as an argument to the -p option to the hash builtin command
importing function definitions from the shell environment at startup
parsing the value of SHELLOPTS from the shell environment at startup
redirecting output using the >, >|, <>, >&, &>, and >> redirection operators
using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command
turning off restricted mode with set +r or set +o restricted.

Ques 2: – How to recover deleted LVM partitions in Linux ?

Ans: – : Using the command “vgcfgrestore” we can recover deleted LVM partitions. Linux keeps the backup copies of lvm configuration in the /etc/lvm/archive directory

Ques 3: – What is Network bonding & why it is used ?

Ans: – Network Bonding / NIC Teaming is creation of a single bonded interface by combining 2 or more Ethernet interfaces. This helps in high availability and performance improvement.

Ques 4: – What is the chattr Command in Linux ?

Ans: – chattr is a command in the Linux operating system that allows a user to set certain attributes on a file residing on an ext2/ext3/ext4 based filesystem.

Syntax :

#chattr [operator] [switch] [file name]

Operator :
+ Add attribute.
– Remove attribute.
= Assign attributes (removing unspecified attributes)

Ques 5: – What is Grub bootloader in UNIX ?

Ans: – GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package from the GNU Project. GRUB provides a user the choice to boot one of multiple operating systems installed on a computer or select a specific kernel configuration available on a particular operating system’s partitions.

Ques 6: – What is Tomcat?

Ans: – Tomcat is a Java Servlet container and web server from Jakartha project of Apache software foundation. A web server sends web pages as response to the requests sent by the browser client. In addition to the static web pages, dynamic web pages are also sent to the web browsers by the web server. Tomcat is sophisticated in this respect, as it provides both Servlet and JSP technologies. Tomcat provides a good choice as a web server for many web applications and also a free Servlet and JSP engine. Tomcat can be used standalone as well as behind other web servers such as Apache httpd.

Ques 7: – How do I configure Tomcat to work with IIS and NTLM?

Ans: – Follow the standard instructions for when the isapi_redirector.dll

Configure IIS to use “integrated windows security” In server.xml, make sure you disable tomcat authentication:

Ques 8: – Explain the concepts of Tomcat Servlet Container.

Ans: – Tomcat Servlet Container is a servlet container. The servlets runs in servlet container. The implementation of Java Servlet and the Java Server Pages is performed by this container. It Provides HTTP web server environment in order to run Java code and reduces garbage collection & native Windows and Unix wrappers for platform integration.

Ques 9: – What is Jasper?

Ans: – 1) Jasper is Tomcat’s JSP Engine. Tomcat 5.x uses Jasper 2, which is an implementation of the Sun Microsystems’s JavaServer Pages 2.0 specification.
2) Jasper parses JSP files to compile them into Java code as servlets (that can be handled by Catalina).
3) At runtime, Jasper is able to automatically detect JSP file changes and recompile them.

Ques 10: – Explain the concepts of Tomcat Servlet Container

Ans: – 1) A servlet container is a specialized web server that supports servlet execution.
2) It combines the basic functionality of a web server with certain Java/servlet specific optimizations and extensions (such as an integrated Java runtime environment, and the ability to automatically translate specific URLs into servlet requests).
3) Individual servlets are registered with a servlet container, providing the container with information such as the functionality, the URL used for identification.
4) The servlet container then initializes the servlet as necessary and delivers requests to the servlet as they arrive.
5) Many containers can dynamically add and remove servlets from the system, allowing new servlets to quickly be deployed or removed without affecting other servlets running from the same container.
6) Servlet containers are also referred to as web containers or web engines.

System Admin Q & A – XVIII

Ques 1: – What is xinetd & why we required xinetd services in linux ?

Ans: – xinetd, the eXtended InterNET Daemon, is an open-source daemon which runs on many Linux and Unix systems and manages Internet-based connectivity.xinetd performs the same function as inetd: it starts programs that provide Internet services. Instead of having such servers started at system initialization time, and be dormant until a connection request arrives, xinetd is the only daemon process started and it listens on all service ports for the services listed in its configuration file. When a request comes in, xinetd starts the appropriate server. Because of the way it operates, xinetd (as well as inetd) is also referred to as a super-server.

Ques 2: – What is use of initrd?

Ans: – The initial RAM disk (initrd) is an initial root file system that is mounted prior to when the real root file system is available. The initrd is bound to the kernel and loaded as part of the kernel boot procedure. The kernel then mounts this initrd as part of the two-stage boot process to load the modules to make the real file systems available and get at the real root file system. The initrd contains a minimal set of directories and executables to achieve this, such as the insmod tool to install kernel modules into the kernel.

Ques 3: – What are Physical Exents & Logical Extents in LVM ?

Ans: – Each physical volume is divided chunks of data, known as physical extents, these extents have the same size as the logical extents for the volume group. Each PV consists of a number of fixed-size physical extents (PEs); similarly, each LV consists of a number of fixed-size logical extents (LEs). (LEs and PEs are always the same size, the default in LVM 2 is 4 MB.) An LV is created by mapping logical extents to physical extents.

Ques 4: – How to find whether you are working physical or virtual linux Server ?

Ans: – Using the command dmidecode we can determine whether I am working on phyical or virtual linux server.

Sample Output :

 # dmidecode | grep -i -e "kvm" -e "vmware"
 Manufacturer: VMware, Inc. 
 Product Name: VMware Virtual Platform 
 Serial Number: VMware-56 4d d3 dd d9  43 5f e4-9d ea c0 99 d0 5e 21 c1 
 Description: VMware SVGA II

Ques 5: – How to find model & serial number of Linux Servers ?

Ans: – : With help of dmidecode command we find the model & serial number of linux Servers as shown below :

# dmidecode -t system
# dmidecode 2.9
 SMBIOS  2.6 present. 
 Handle  0x0100, DMI type 1, 27 bytes
 System  Information
 Manufacturer:  HP
 Product  Name: ProLiant DL360 G7
 Version:  Not Specified
 Serial  Number: USE000A11M
 UUID:  30000000-3000-5000-4000-300000000000
 Wake-up  Type: Power Switch
 SKU  Number: 579237-B21
 Family:  ProLiant 
 Handle  0x2000, DMI type 32, 11 bytes
 System  Boot Information
 Status:  No errors detected

Ques 6: – What is Open vSwitch?

Ans: – Open vSwitch is a production quality open source software switch designed to be used as a vswitch in virtualized server environments. A vswitch forwards traffic between different VMs on the same physical host and also forwards traffic between VMs and the physical network. Open vSwitch supports standard management interfaces (e.g. sFlow, NetFlow, RSPAN, CLI), and is open to programmatic extension and control using OpenFlow and the OVSDB management protocol.

Open vSwitch as designed to be compatible with modern switching chipsets. This means that it can be ported to existing high-fanout switches allowing the same flexible control of the physical infrastructure as the virtual infrastructure. It also means that Open vSwitch will be able to take advantage of on-NIC switching chipsets as their functionality matures.

Ques 7: – What virtualization platforms can use Open vSwitch?

Ans: – : Open vSwitch can currently run on any Linux-based virtualization platform (kernel 2.6.18 and newer), including: KVM, VirtualBox, Xen, Xen Cloud Platform, XenServer. As of Linux 3.3 it is part of the mainline kernel. The bulk of the code is written in platform- independent C and is easily ported to other environments.

Ques 8: – Which are the important configuration files for Linux DNS server ?

Ans: – BIND uses /etc/named.conf as its main configuration file, the /etc/rndc.conf file as the configuration file for name server control utility rndc, and the /var/named/ directory for zone files and the like.

Ques 9: – What is Trunk Port ?

Ans: – A Trunk Link, or ‘Trunk‘ is a port configured to carry packets for any VLAN. These type of ports are usually found in connections between switches. These links require the ability to carry packets from all available VLANs because VLANs span over multiple switches.

Ques 10: – What is VLAN and its advantages ?

Ans: – VLAN refers to Virtual Local Area Network is a virtual LAN that extends its functionalities beyond a single LAN. Through VLAN a network is divided into different logical segments known as broadcast domains. The computers in the VLAN acts as they are connected with the same LAN segment even they are located on the different network segments. In the VLAN, computers can move from one location to another and they can still be the part of the same VLAN. VLAN offers many advantages over the traditional local area network.

The main advantages of the VLAN includes high performance, simplified network administration, security, low cost and the creation of the virtual groups to avoid the collision and data loss in the network. VLAN controls the bandwidth allocations and provides the flexibility and ease of work to the users.In the VLAN, the computers do not need to be physically located at the same place. Though it is a logical entity it is created and configured through the software.