Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 (70-461)

Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 (70-416)

Course Outline

Module 1: Introduction to Microsoft SQL Server 2012

This module introduces the SQL Server platform and major tools. It discusses editions, versions, tools used to query, documentation sources, and the logical structure of databases.
Lessons

  • Introducing Microsoft SQL Server 2012
  • Getting Started with SQL Server Management Studio

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe the architecture and editions of SQL Server 2012.
  • Work with SQL Server Management Studio.

Module 2: Introduction to T-SQL Querying
This module introduces Transact SQL as the primary querying language of SQL Server. It discusses the basic structure of T-SQL queries, the logical flow of a SELECT statement, and introduces concepts such as predicates and set-based operations.

Lessons:

  • Introducing T-SQL
  • Understanding Sets
  • Understanding Predicate Logic
  • Understanding the Logical Order of Operations in SELECT statements

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe the elements of T-SQL and their role in writing queries
  • Describe the use of sets in SQL Server
  • Describe the use of predicate logic in SQL Server
  • Describe the logical order of operations in SELECT statements

Module 3: Writing SELECT Queries
This module introduces the fundamentals of the SELECT statement, focusing on queries against a single table.
Lessons:

  • Writing Simple SELECT Statements
  • Eliminating Duplicates with DISTINCT
  • Using Column and Table Aliases
  • Writing Simple CASE Expressions

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write simple SELECT statements.
  • Eliminate duplicates using the DISTINCT clause.
  • Use column and table aliases.
  • Write simple CASE expressions.

Module 4: Querying Multiple Tables
This module explains how to write queries which combine data from multiple sources in SQL Server. The module introduces the use of JOINs in T-SQL queries as a mechanism for retrieving data from multiple tables.
Lessons:

  • Understanding Joins
  • Querying with Inner Joins
  • Querying with Outer Joins
  • Querying with Cross Joins and Self Joins

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe how multiple tables may be queried in a SELECT statement using joins.
  • Write queries that use inner joins.
  • Write queries that use outer joins.
  • Write queries that use self-joins and cross joins.

 

Module 5: Sorting and Filtering Data
This module explains how to enhance queries to limit the rows they return, and to control the order in which the rows are displayed. The module also discusses how to resolve missing and unknown results.
Lessons:

  • Sorting Data
  • Filtering Data with a WHERE Clause

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Filter data with predicates in the WHERE clause.
  • Sort data using ORDER BY.
  • Filter data in the SELECT clause with TOP.
  • Filter data with OFFSET and FETCH.

 

Module 6: Working with SQL Server 2012 Data Types
This module explains the data types SQL Server uses to store data. It introduces the many types of numeric and special-use data types. It also explains conversions between data types, and the importance of type precedence.
Lessons:

  • Introducing SQL Server 2012 Data Types
  • Working with Character Data
  • Working with Date and Time Data

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe numeric data types, type precedence and type conversions.
  • Write queries using character data types.
  • Write queries using date and time data types.

 

Module 7: Using Built-In Functions
This module introduces the use of functions that are built in to SQL Server Denali, and will discuss some common usages including data type conversion, testing for logical results and null ability.
Lessons:

  • Writing Queries with Built-In Functions
  • Using Conversion Functions
  • Using Logical Functions
  • Using Functions to Work with NULL

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write queries with built-in scalar functions.
  • Use conversion functions.
  • Use logical functions.
  • Use functions that work with NULL.

 

Module 8: Grouping and Aggregating Data
This module introduces methods for grouping data within a query, aggregating the grouped data and filtering groups with HAVING. The module is designed to help the student grasp why a SELECT clause has restrictions placed upon column naming in the GROUP BY clause as well as which columns may be listed in the SELECT clause.
Lessons:

  • Using Aggregate Functions
  • Using the GROUP BY Clause
  • Filtering Groups with HAVING

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write queries which summarize data using built-in aggregate functions.
  • Use the GROUP BY clause to arrange rows into groups.
  • Use the HAVING clause to filter out groups based on a search condition.

 

Module 9: Using Subqueries
This module will introduce the use of subqueries in various parts of a SELECT statement. It will include the use of scalar and multi-result subqueries, and the use of the IN and EXISTS operators.
Lessons:

  • Writing Self-Contained Subqueries
  • Writing Correlated Subqueries
  • Using the EXISTS Predicate with Subqueries

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe the uses of queries which are nested within other queries.
  • Write self-contained subqueries which return scalar or multi-valued results.
  • Write correlated subqueries which return scalar or multi-valued results.
  • Use the EXISTS predicate to efficiently check for the existence of rows in a subquery.

 

Module 10: Using Table Expressions
This module introduces T-SQL expressions which return a valid relational table, typically for further use in the query. The module discusses views, derived tables, common table expressions and inline table-valued functions.
Lessons:

  • Using Derived Tables
  • Using Common Table Expressions
  • Using Views
  • Using Inline Table-Valued Functions

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write queries which use derived tables.
  • Write queries which use common table expressions.
  • Create simple views and write queries against them.
  • Create simple inline table-valued functions and write queries against them.

 

Module 11: Using Set Operators
This module introduces operations involving multiple sets of data. It will cover the use of the UNION, UNION ALL, APPLY, CROSS APPLY, OUTER APPLY operators as well as the EXCEPT and INTERSECTS operators.
Lessons:

  • Writing Queries with the UNION Operator
  • Using EXCEPT and INTERSECT
  • Using APPLY

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write queries which combine data using the UNION operator
  • Write queries which compare sets using the INTERSECT and EXCEPT operators
  • Write queries which manipulate rows in a table by using APPLY with the results of a derived table or function

 

Module 12: Using Window Ranking, Offset and Aggregate Functions
This module introduces window functions including ranking, aggregate and offset functions. Much of this functionality is new to SQL Server 2012. It will cover the use of T-SQL functions such as ROW_NUMBER, RANK, DENSE_RANK, NTILE, LAG, LEAD, FIRST_VALUE and LAST_VALUE to perform calculations against a set, or window, of rows.
Lessons:

  • Creating Windows with OVER
  • Exploring Window Functions

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe the benefits to using window functions.
  • Restrict window functions to rows defined in an OVER clause, including partitions and frames.
  • Write queries which use window functions to operate on a window of rows and return ranking, aggregation and offset comparison results.

 

Module 13: Pivoting and Grouping Sets
This module discusses techniques for pivoting data in T-SQL as well to introduce the fundamentals of the GROUPING SETS clause. It will also cover the use of GROUP BY ROLLUP and GROUP BY CUBE syntax in SQL Server 2012.
Lessons:

  • Writing Queries with PIVOT and UNPIVOT
  • Working with Grouping Sets

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write queries which pivot and unpivot result sets
  • Write queries which specify multiple groupings with grouping sets

 

Module 14: Querying SQL Server Metadata
This module introduces the use of SQL Server system objects in T-SQL queries. It will cover the use of system catalog views, system stored procedures, system functions, and dynamic management objects.
Lessons:

  • Querying System Catalog Views and Functions
  • Executing System Stored Procedures
  • Querying Dynamic Management Objects

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Write queries that retrieve system metadata using system views and functions.
  • Execute system stored procedures to return system information.
  • Write queries that retrieve system metadata and state information using system dynamic management views and functions.

 

Module 15: Executing Stored Procedures
This module introduces the use of existing stored procedures in a T-SQL querying environment. It discusses the use of EXECUTE, how to pass input and output parameters to a procedure, and how to invoke system stored procedures.
Lessons:

  • Querying Data with Stored Procedures
  • Passing Parameters to Stored Procedures
  • Creating Simple Stored Procedures
  • Working with Dynamic SQL

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Return results by executing stored procedures.
  • Pass parameters to procedures.
  • Create simple stored procedures which encapsulate a SELECT statement.
  • Construct and execute dynamic SQL with EXEC and sp_executesql.

 

Module 16: Programming with T-SQL
This module provides a basic introduction to T-SQL programming concepts and objects. It discusses batches, variables, control of flow elements such as loops and conditionals, how to create and execute dynamic SQL statements, and how to use synonyms.
Lessons:

  • T-SQL Programming Elements
  • Controlling Program Flow

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe the language elements of T-SQL used for simple programming tasks.
  • Describe batches and how they are handled by SQL Server.
  • Declare and assign variables and synonyms.
  • Use IF and WHILE blocks to control program flow.

 

Module 17: Implementing Error Handling
This module introduces the use of error handlers in T-SQL code. It will introduce the difference between compile errors and run-time errors, and will cover how errors affect batches. The module will also cover how to control error handling using TRY/CATCH blocks, the use of the ERROR class of functions, and the use of the new THROW statement.
Lessons:

  • Using TRY / CATCH Blocks
  • Working with Error Information

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe SQL Server’s behavior when errors occur in T-SQL code.
  • Implement structured exception handling in T-SQL.
  • Return information about errors from system objects.
  • Raise user-defined errors and pass system errors in T-SQL code.

 

Module 18: Implementing Transactions
This module introduces the concepts of transaction management in SQL Server. It will provide a high-level overview of transaction properties, cover the basics of marking transactions with BEGIN,
COMMIT and ROLLBACK.
Lessons:

  • Transactions and the Database Engine
  • Controlling Transactions

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe transactions and the differences between batches and transactions.
  • Describe batches and how they are handled by SQL Server.
  • Create and manage transactions with transaction control language statements.
  • Use SET XACT_ABORT to define SQL Server’s handling of transactions outside TRY / CATCH blocks

 

Module 19: Improving Query Performance
This module introduces the concepts of system resource usage and the performance impact of querying SQL Server 2012. It will cover, at a high level, the use of indexes in SQL Server, the use of execution plans in SQL Server Management Studio, and the use of SET options to view system resource usage when executing queries. It will also compare set-based operations with cursor- based operations.
Lessons:

  • Factors in Query Performance
  • Displaying Query Performance Data

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • Describe components of well-performing queries.
  • Describe the role of indexes and statistics in SQL Server
  • Display and interpret basic query plans
  • Display and interpret basic query performance data

 

 

 

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