System Admin Q & A – XII

Ques 1: – What are major and minor numbers in Linux ?

Ans: – When accessing a device file, the major number selects which device driver is being called to perform the input/output operation. This call is being done with the minor number as a parameter and it is entirely up to the driver how the minor number is being interpreted.

e.g :

 #  ls -l /dev/sda
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 0 root  9 07:56 /dev/sda

Here , 8 is the device number and 0 is the minor device number.

Ques 2: – What is Nested virtualization & How to enable this in KVM ?

Ans: – Nested virtualization refers to running virtual machines (VMs) inside other VMs, usually for testing purposes.

To enable nested Virtualization , set this kernel module “kvm-intel.nested=1”

Ques 3: – What is Shorewall?

Ans:Shorewall is a opensource gateway/firewall configuration tool for Linux. Shorewall, is high-level tool for configuring Netfilter. We describe our firewall/gateway requirements using entries in a set of configuration files. Shorewall reads those configuration files and with the help of the iptables, iptables-restore, ip and tc utilities, Shorewall configures Netfilter and the Linux

Ques 4: – What is NAT ?

Ans:Network Address Translation(NAT) generally involves re-writing the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets as they pass through a firewall.There are two two types of natting.

ii) SNAT

Ques 5: – What are SRV record in DNS ?

Ans: – A Service record (SRV record) is a specification of data in the Domain Name System defining the location, i.e. the hostname and port number, of servers for specified services.
An SRV record has the form: TTL class SRV priority weight port target
  • service: the symbolic name of the desired service.
  • proto: the transport protocol of the desired service; this is usually either TCP or UDP.
  • name: the domain name for which this record is valid.
  • TTL: standard DNS time to live field.
  • class: standard DNS class field (this is always IN).
  • priority: the priority of the target host, lower value means more preferred.
  • weight: A relative weight for records with the same priority.
  • port: the TCP or UDP port on which the service is to be found.
  • target: the canonical hostname of the machine providing the service.

An example SRV record in textual form that might be found in a zone file might be the following: 86400 IN SRV 0 5 5060

Ques 6: – What is a Veritas Cluster server or VCS cluster ?

Ans: – VERITAS Cluster Server (VCS) from Symantec connects multiple, independent systems into a management framework for increased availability. Each system, or node, runs its own operating system and cooperates at the software level to form a cluster. VCS links commodity hardware with intelligent software to provide application failover and control. When a node or a monitored application fails, other nodes can take predefined actions to take over and bring up services elsewhere in the cluster.

Ques 7: – What are On-Off & Persistent Resources in Veritas Cluster ?

Ans: – On-Off:- VCS starts and stops On-Off resources as required. For example, VCS imports a disk group when required, and deports it when it is no longer needed.

Persistent:- These resources cannot be brought online or taken offline. For example, a network interface card cannot be started or stopped, but it is required to configure an IP address. A Persistent resource has an operation value of none. VCS monitors Persistent resources to ensure their status and operation. Failure of a Persistent resource triggers a service group failover

Ques 8: – What are the Active directory requirements to install Exchange Server 2007?


  1. Domain functional level at least windows server 2000 native or higher
  2. Schema Master must be run on windows 2003 server with sp1
  3. At least one Domain Controller, in each domain with windows server 2003 sp1
  4. At least one global catalog server in Active Directory Site which hosts exchange Server 2007
  5. 4:1 ratio of Exchange processor to global catalog server processors

Ques 9: – What are Veritas Cluster or VCS User Account Privileges ?


Cluster Administrator :- Full Privileges

Cluster Operator :- All cluster, service group, and resources-level operations.

Cluster Guest  :- Read-only access: new users created as cluster guest accounts by default.

Group Administrator :- All service group operations for a specified service group, except deleting service group.

Group Operator :- Bring service groups and resources online and take offline, temporarily freeze or unfreeze service groups

Ques 10: – What is Transition in Exchange Server 2007?

Ans: – Transition is the scenario in which you upgrade an existing Exchange organization to Microsoft Exchange Server 2007. To perform the transition, you must move data from the existing Exchange servers to new Exchange 2007 servers. For example, when upgrading from an Exchange Server 2003 or Exchange 2000 Server organization to an Exchange 2007 organization, you perform a transition. When transitioning to Exchange 2007, you cannot perform an in-place server upgrade on an existing Exchange server. Instead, you must install a new Exchange 2007 server into the existing organization, and then move data to the new Exchange 2007 server

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